• Ihsan Khan Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University (SBBU), Sheringal
  • Najm Ur Rehman Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University (SBBU), Sheringal
  • Majid Khan Department of Pharmacy Abasyn university, Peshawar
  • Tanzeela Ghani Abasyn University, Peshawar
  • Nida Iftikhar Abasyn University, Peshawar
  • Anjum Shahzad Abasyn University, Peshawar
  • Abbas Iqbal Abasyn University, Peshawar



mild, moderate and severe pain, WHO Ladder


Introduction: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with either actual or potential tissue damage. This study aims to compare prescriptions with the benchmark of the three-step analgesic ladder recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given Pakistan's membership in the WHO, adherence to the WHO analgesic ladder is essential.

Material & Methods: The current two-month observational study was conducted at Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) in Peshawar, Pakistan, the data collected on prescription practices based on a specialized proforma, categorizing them based on their pain condition and therapy. Lastly, the data analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Graph pad Prism. The study assessed compliance with the WHO analgesic ladder for patients experiencing mild, moderate, or severe pain and categorized them based on therapy.

Results: A total of 81 cases were gathered from various hospital wards, including orthopedic, psychiatric, and surgical wards. Out of all patients, 64 (79%) were male and 17 (21%) were female. The study revealed that 77 patients were found to be complying and only four patients deviating from the ladder. Among the four patients who deviated, three had moderate pain, and one had severe pain. The study revealed that the WHO analgesic ladder was predominantly followed, with only a few deviations noted. Physicians demonstrated a good understanding of the gold standard in analgesic therapy. Many patients (95%) adhered to the ladder, indicating a high level of awareness among physicians regarding rational analgesic prescribing practices.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the WHO analgesic ladder was largely adhered to at LRH, with a negligible deviations observed. This underscores the importance of benchmarking practices in prescribing analgesics in hospitals to ensure rational and effective pain management for patients.




How to Cite

Khan, I., Rehman, N. U. ., Khan, M., Ghani, T. ., Iftikhar, N. ., Shahzad, A. ., & Iqbal, A. . (2024). PRESCRIPTIONS MESHING BASED ON THE WHO THREE-STEPS ANALGESIC LADDER: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY. Rehman Journal of Health Sciences, 6(1), 37–42.

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.