COMPARISON OF URINE JET VELOCITY IN VARIOUS GRADES OF HYDRONEPHROSIS IN THE CASE OF URETERIC OBSTRUCTION BY REAL-TIME
Keywords:Hydronephrosis grading, real-time sonography, spectral Doppler, ureteric obstruction
Introduction: Hydronephrosis is a common complication of the kidney that is caused by obstruction to kidney ureters and bladder. The renal pelvis and pelvicalyceal system of the kidney become dilated. The obstruction may either be in the upper or lower urinary tract. Upper urinary tract obstruction includes ureteropelvic junction obstruction, renal stone, tumours, and vesicoureteric junction obstruction while lower tract includes benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate tumours posterior urethral valves.
Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Radiology Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan. The study duration was 9 months (September 2020 and May 2021). A total of 120 participants were presented with a history of flank and are suspicious for renal stone causing hydronephrosis. 30 patients were taken as control with no renal disease while 90 were cases having renal disease. Grading of hydronephrosis and Urine jet velocity was recorded by using real-time and spectral doppler ultrasound.
Results: A total of 120 participants were included in this study. The mean jet velocity in the normal individuals was recorded as 50.37 ± 6.4 cm/s, however, in patients with mild, moderate, and severe hydronephrosis the mean jet velocity was recorded as 14.23 ± 10.47 cm/s, 7.32± 8.14 cm/s and, 1.5 ± 3.98 cm/s respectively.
Conclusion: Urine jet velocity is a good indicator of ureteric obstruction in a patient with various grades of hydronephrosis. The velocity of the urine jet reduced significantly with increasing the severity of hydronephrosis.