FREQUENCY AND RISK FACTORS OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Keywords:multidrug-resistant TB, rpoB gene, Xpert MTB/RIF assay
Introduction: Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major health problem worldwide especially in Pakistan. It infects around 7000 individuals annually. Many factors are related to the disease prevalence and disease transmission, however, limited data is available in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). We designed a study that provides an opportunity to mark the rich pockets and the predictors of the implications of MDR-TB in KP.
Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 1-year (2016-2017) at the unit of Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB (PMDT) located in tertiary care hospital, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH).
Results: Out of 1015 cases, 137 (14%) were detected rifampicin-resistant (RR) by Xpert MTB/RIF. Mutation present in codon 531 of the rpoBgene was observed frequently. Females 529 (52%) with the dominant age range of (<44 years) were found more compared to males. Participants residing in rural areas have 5% lower chances of MDR-TB than urban ones. The rural (54%) participants using biomass were significantly associated with the disease. Diabetes prevalence was found in 22%, and the most obvious clinical manifestation was productive cough 95% of MDR-TB but the test was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: The increase in patients of MDR-TB amongst prior exposure to anti-TB medications is an issue of incredible concern. MDR-TB issue is noticeable in rural inhabitants of KP. A major gap was found about the awareness of respondents cross-examined in regards to the study of disease transmission, risk factors, signs and side effects, and proper anticipation strategies. Xpert MTB/RIF is the best option in high settings due to the short turnout time.